Short introduction on Cuba’s emissions
Although CO2 is the driving force behind the temperature changes, other gases such as methane (CH4) also contribute their share to global warming, for example through the exploitation of gas fields, and emissions by livestock. While methane is emitted much less than CO2 on a global scale, it is a much stronger greenhouse gas (GHG). Scientists estimated the relative strength of the important Kyoto greenhouse gases so that we can convert all emissions to an equivalent of CO2 emissions. For example, the emission of one ton of methane has approximately the warming effect of 25 tons of CO2. The factor of 25 reflects the climate forcing on a 100-year time horizon, following the Global Warming Potential presented in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
With greenhouse gas emissions of approximately the equivalent of 49.1 mega tonnes of CO2 (Mt CO2eq), Cuba contributed 0.10% to the global greenhouse gas emissions of 2017 (rank 86 - incl. EU27 on rank 3). All emissions estimates exclude emissions and absorption from land, which result from activities such as cutting down or planting of forests (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry: LULUCF). Emissions from bunker fuels (international aviation and shipping) were also excluded, as they are not accounted for in national totals.
For 2030, Cuba’s global contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is projected to stay at a similar level of approximately 0.087% (49.0 mega tonnes of CO2 equivalent / rank 101 - incl. EU27 on rank 4). The emissions projections for Cuba were derived by downscaling the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways’ (SSPs) “Middle-of-the-Road” baseline marker scenario SSP2. These pathways describe certain narratives of socio-economic developments and were, i.a., used to derive greenhouse gas emissions scenarios that correspond to these developments. SSP2 is a narrative with little shifts in socio-economic patterns compared to historical ones, and is connected to medium socio-economic challenges for both climate mitigation and adaptation. While different models were used for each storyline, per SSP (SSPs1-5) one model was chosen as representative “marker scenario”. As the emissions projections are not readily available on country-level, but national estimates are important, the pathways were downscaled in the aftermath. In 2017, Cuba represented 0.15% of the global population. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2017 were 0.082% of the global GDP.
Looking at the highest contributing emissions sectors and gases separately, we find that in 2017 the highest contributing emissions sectors were Energy and Agriculture (76.1% and 14.6%). Amongst the greenhouse gases that are considered in the Kyoto Protocol, the strongest contributor with 72.4% was CO2. This was followed by CH4 emissions, with a significantly lower share of 20.7%. When not considering the sectors and gases independently, but the sector-gas combinations instead, Energy CO2 and Agriculture CH4 (69.4% and 9.3%) represented the largest emissions in 2017.
Greenhouse gas mitigation and Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)
In 2015, the majority of countries agreed to the Paris Agreement (PA), with the goal of “Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change” (Article 2.1.a). Countries stated their pledges and targets towards achieving the PA’s goals in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). With Article 4.4 of the Paris Agreement, Parties decided that “Developed country Parties should continue taking the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets. Developing country Parties should continue enhancing their mitigation efforts, and are encouraged to move over time towards economy-wide emission reduction or limitation targets in the light of different national circumstances.”
In its NDC, Cuba indicates its contribution as “Goals in mitigation: Actions and policies type” (NDC, p. 9). The 2020 NDC notes that “The update and expansion of mitigation goals, in addition to what was expressed in 2015 with regards to renewable energy and energy efficiency, now includes contributions on transportation and forestry.” (NDC, p. 10). While the NDC includes an unconditional contribution (NDC, p. 18), most of Cuba’s contributions are conditional. As “Conditioning for the execution of the contribution”, Cuba requires “Long term credits […] for the amount of USD 4713 million to implement the contribution.” (NDC, p. 14). The country provides mitigation estimates of avoided or removed emissions for several single contributions, over defined periods of time, ranging from 2014-2030 to 2020-2030 (NDC, p. 14: 30.6 million ktCO2eq avoided for 2014-2030; NDC, p. 16: 700 thousand ktCO2eq avoided for 2014-2030; NDC, p. 17: one million ktCO2eq avoided annually; NDC, p. 18: 169,9 million tons of atmospheric CO2 removed over 2019-2030; NDC, p. 19: 8 million ktCO2eq reduced annually for 2020-2030).
In terms of coverage, the country lists the sectors “Energy; Agriculture, Forestry and other Land Uses (AFOLU)” (NDC, p. 10) as covered, and notes that “Considering the sectors’ contribution to the national inventory of greenhouse gases, agriculture and energy are currently the sectors that are prioritized for emissions reduction.” (NDC, p. 13), why from the main IPCC emissions sectors, we assume IPPU and Waste not to be targeted by Cuba’s mitigation contributions. From the basket of Kyoto GHGs, CO2, CH4, and N2O are stated as covered (NDC, p. 10), why we assume the F-gases not to be addressed. In total, our assessment of covered sectors and gases results in an estimated 90.7% of 2017’ emissions being targeted by the NDC (based on PRIMAP-hist v2.1 HISTCR exclLU, in AR4).
Amongst the contributions, the country intends an “Increase of forest coverage in the country to 33% by 2030 in AFOLU (Forestry)” (NDC, p. 13), and regarding Article 6 of the PA (cooperation and markets), Cuba mentions that “In the event that a satisfactory covenant is achieved in the negotiations under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, Cuba intends to use cooperative approaches that involve the use of mitigation results of international transfer in accordance with the mentioned Article.” (NDC, p. 10).
As we did not quantify mitigation contributions by Cuba, we assume the country’s emissions to follow projected baseline emissions. This is of special need when aggregating country-level data to regional or global values, to then, e.g., derive estimates of the end-of-century warming levels in line with mitigation pledges.
The NDC-assessment is based on Cuba’s NDC submitted to the UNFCCC in December 2020.
The Figure below provides additional information, regarding both the baseline emissions used in our assessment and the quantified mitigated pathways for Cuba.
Baseline emissions and mitigated emissions pathways based on the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution. In terms of national emissions, we look at the SSP2 baseline marker scenario, and the emissions of all IPCC sectors. Contributions from LULUCF are excluded (exclLU), and the emissions are based on GWPs from AR4. The left panel (a) shows the baseline emissions, indicating the contributions of the Kyoto Greenhouse Gases CO2, CH4, N2O, and the basket of F-gases to the national emissions. If we could extract baseline data exclLU from the NDC, you can see their values as black squares (converted from GWP SAR to AR4 if needed). In the right panel (b), the quantified mitigated emissions pathways are shown, based on information from the country’s NDC and also on non-NDC emissions baselines, per target conditionality and range (marked un-/conditional best/worst). Even though not all countries have targets with different conditionalities or ranges, we need assumptions for all four cases to build one global pathway per conditionality plus range combination and to derive corresponding temperature estimates. Therefore, we indicate these four pathways here. Per combination, we performed several quantifications with differing assumptions and show the median and the minimal and maximal pathways here. Additionally, if we could quantify the targets based on data extracted purely from the NDC - or if the targets were directly given in absolute emissions, these targets are shown as squares (in the GWP originally given in the NDC).
Data sources and further information
- Historical emissions: PRIMAP-hist v2.1 (Guetschow et al., 2016, 2019).
- Historical socio-economic data: PRIMAP-hist Socio-Eco v2.1 (Guetschow et al., 2019).
- Projected emissions and socio-economic data: downscaled SSPs (Guetschow et al., 2020, 2020).
- NDC quantifications: NDCmitiQ (Guenther et al., 2020, 2021).
- GDP is given in purchasing power parity (PPP).
- Main emissions sectors (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC): Energy, Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU), Agriculture and LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry), also named AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use), and Waste.
- Kyoto GHG: basket of several GHGs, namely carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and since the second Kyoto Protocol period (2013-20) additionally nitrogen fluoride (NF3).
- Global Warming Potentials (GWPs): GHGs have very different warming potentials. To make them comparable and for aggregation purposes, GWPs are used (how much energy will 1 ton of a certain gas absorb over a defined period of time, relative to the same mass of CO2?).
1 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam, Germany